- Undergraduate Education
- B.Sc. University of Guelph, Canada (1981)
- Graduate Education
- M.Sc. University of Guelph, Canada (1983)
- Ph.D. University of California, Davis (1986)
- Postdoc. University of California, Davis School of Medicine (1986-88)
- Joined Texas A&M in 1988
We have explored the ability of plant and marine/fungal species-derived bioactive agents (limonin, curcumin, dietary fibers, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) on mucosal homeostasis, resolution of chronic-Th17 cell mediated inflammation in the intestine, and the suppression of colorectal cancer. Cell culture and transgenic animal models of acute/chronic inflammation and colon cancer have been used in a complementary manner. We have also optimized a primary somatic stem cell colonic crypt “organoid” cell culture system for the purpose of examining the effects of diet-derived chemotherapeutic agents on self-organizing epithelial structure ex vivo. These results provide a critical new paradigm in understanding the molecular mechanisms through which diet modulates, innate immune responses, T-cell activation, intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer.
By bringing together collaborators in the fields of nutrition, microbiology, pediatrics, computational modeling and statistics, we developed novel “non-invasive” high throughput gene sequencing techniques to simultaneously examine both intestinal gene expression and microbial (microbiome) composition in stool samples. The technique involves isolating genetic material from both intestinal epithelial cells and microbes shed in the subjects’ stools, and comparing the extent to which genes are expressed in both the host and microbiome in subjects administered bioactive dietary agents. This breakthrough technology, for the first time, will provide insight into both host and microbial responses to prebiotic dietary components in human subjects.
Ultimately, the integration of information from the “host” and the microbiome will be used to identify important regulatory pathways of the gut microbiome affecting intestinal development throughout the life span. The use of non-invasive stool-based tests will become critical tools in tailoring diet and practices that modulate epithelial (host) cells and microbiota to promote intestinal development and health.
Jin, UH, Cheng, Y, Park, H, Davidson, LA, Callaway, ES, Chapkin, RS et al.. Short Chain Fatty Acids Enhance Aryl Hydrocarbon (Ah) Responsiveness in Mouse Colonocytes and Caco-2 Human Colon Cancer Cells. Sci Rep. 2017;7 (1):10163.
Kumar, R, Herold, JL, Schady, D, Davis, J, Kopetz, S, Martinez-Moczygemba, M et al.. Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus promotes colorectal tumor development. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13 (7):e1006440.
Seidel, DV, Azcárate-Peril, MA, Chapkin, RS, Turner, ND. Shaping functional gut microbiota using dietary bioactives to reduce colon cancer risk. Semin. Cancer Biol. 2017; :.
Kim, E, Ivanov, I, Hua, J, Lampe, JW, Hullar, MA, Chapkin, RS et al.. The Model-Based Study of the Effectiveness of Reporting Lists of Small Feature Sets Using RNA-Seq Data. Cancer Inform. 2017;16 :1176935117710530.
Armstrong, CM, Allred, KF, Weeks, BR, Chapkin, RS, Allred, CD. Estradiol Has Differential Effects on Acute Colonic Inflammation in the Presence and Absence of Estrogen Receptor β Expression. Dig. Dis. Sci. 2017;62 (8):1977-1984.
Triff, K, McLean, MW, Konganti, K, Pang, J, Callaway, E, Zhou, B et al.. Assessment of histone tail modifications and transcriptional profiling during colon cancer progression reveals a global decrease in H3K4me3 activity. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2017;1863 (6):1392-1402.
Navarro, SL, Neuhouser, ML, Cheng, TD, Tinker, LF, Shikany, JM, Snetselaar, L et al.. The Interaction between Dietary Fiber and Fat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Women's Health Initiative. Nutrients. 2016;8 (12):.
Cheng, Y, Jin, UH, Davidson, LA, Chapkin, RS, Jayaraman, A, Tamamis, P et al.. Editor's Highlight: Microbial-Derived 1,4-Dihydroxy-2-naphthoic Acid and Related Compounds as Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Agonists/Antagonists: Structure-Activity Relationships and Receptor Modeling. Toxicol. Sci. 2017;155 (2):458-473.
Kim, E, Davidson, LA, Zoh, RS, Hensel, ME, Salinas, ML, Patil, BS et al.. Rapidly cycling Lgr5(+) stem cells are exquisitely sensitive to extrinsic dietary factors that modulate colon cancer risk. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7 (11):e2460.
Fan, YY, Davidson, LA, Chapkin, RS. Murine Colonic Organoid Culture System and Downstream Assay Applications. Methods Mol. Biol. 2016; :.